Research: Age of Innocence: Difference between revisions

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==Unrepresentatively sampled and/or coercive CSA studies==
==Unrepresentatively sampled and/or coercive CSA studies==


Studies which focus on ''unrepresentative'' clinical samples rather than the wider population, have occasionally (although inconsistently) shown an association between age and severity of symptoms. This might be because of self-perception (abusive contacts before puberty are far rarer) and/or due to the higher prevalence of forced incestuous contacts at a younger age of first onset (incest is usually associated with more negative outcomes). When
Studies which focus on ''unrepresentative'' clinical samples rather than the wider population, have occasionally (although inconsistently) shown an association between age and severity of symptoms. This might be because of self-perception (abusive contacts before puberty are far rarer) and/or due to the higher prevalence of forced incestuous contacts at a younger age of first onset (incest is usually associated with more negative outcomes).


*'''Bulik, C. M., Prescott, C. A., & Kendler, K. S. (2001). [https://sci-hub.se/10.1192/bjp.179.5.444 Features of childhood sexual abuse and the development of psychiatric and substance use disorders.] ''British Journal of Psychiatry'', 179(05), 444–449.'''
*'''Bulik, C. M., Prescott, C. A., & Kendler, K. S. (2001). [https://sci-hub.se/10.1192/bjp.179.5.444 Features of childhood sexual abuse and the development of psychiatric and substance use disorders.] ''British Journal of Psychiatry'', 179(05), 444–449.'''
*:"Age at the time of first CSA ranged from under 5 to 15 years, with the majority of individuals being between 12-15 years old. [...] We observed no increased risk of later psychopathology related to the age at which an individual was first abused, the number of, or the gender of the perpetrators." [Tables in the paper corroborate this claim - Ed]
*:"Age at the time of first CSA ranged from under 5 to 15 years, with the majority of individuals being between 12-15 years old. [...] We observed no increased risk of later psychopathology related to the age at which an individual was first abused, the number of, or the gender of the perpetrators." [Tables in the paper corroborate this claim - Ed]
*'''Maker, A. H., Kemmelmeier, M., & Peterson, C. (2001). [https://sci-hub.se/10.1023/a:1011173103684 Child sexual abuse, peer sexual abuse, and sexual assault in adulthood: A multi-risk model of revictimization.] ''Journal of Traumatic Stress'', 14(2), 351–368. '''
*:"With regard to the consequences of pre-16 years and post-16 years sexual victimization, we found that that the latter was associated with lower levels of functioning on many of the mental health and behavioral outcomes. By contrast, pre-16 years sexual trauma (CSA or PSA) was only related to some maladaptive behavioral and psychological consequences. The pattern of findings is consistent with the assumption that more recent trauma has a greater impact on psychosocial functioning than more distal child abuse. This does not mean that CSA and PSA are less detrimental, but perhaps that women have had a longer time to cope with the effects of CSA in comparison to that of ASA (cf. Rind et al., 1998)."
*'''Ulibarri, M. D., Ulloa, E. C., & Salazar, M. (2015). [https://sci-hub.se/10.1080/10538712.2015.976303 Associations between Mental Health, Substance Use, and Sexual Abuse Experiences among Latinas.] ''Journal of Child Sexual Abuse'', 24(1), 35–54. '''
*:"Whereas some research focuses primarily on childhood sexual abuse and others focus on adult sexual abuse victimization, the results of the current study suggest that both may have negative consequences for Latinas regardless of how old they were when they were first sexually abused."


==Studies which use Rind-type CSA definitions==
==Studies which use Rind-type CSA definitions==

Revision as of 23:10, 3 August 2022

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It is widely assumed that when forced or unwanted (a minority of) sexual contact does take place, younger minors are especially vulnerable to harm. This is said to manifest itself in the form of multiple psychological impairments in later life. Much like the idea that CSA "syndrome" takes on a certain observable form, these ideas are not supported by quantitative evidence. It instead appears that the perception of having been subjected to "abuse" is associated with negative psychological outcomes, regardless of the age at which the perceived abuse took place.

Unrepresentatively sampled and/or coercive CSA studies

Studies which focus on unrepresentative clinical samples rather than the wider population, have occasionally (although inconsistently) shown an association between age and severity of symptoms. This might be because of self-perception (abusive contacts before puberty are far rarer) and/or due to the higher prevalence of forced incestuous contacts at a younger age of first onset (incest is usually associated with more negative outcomes).

  • Bulik, C. M., Prescott, C. A., & Kendler, K. S. (2001). Features of childhood sexual abuse and the development of psychiatric and substance use disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 179(05), 444–449.
    "Age at the time of first CSA ranged from under 5 to 15 years, with the majority of individuals being between 12-15 years old. [...] We observed no increased risk of later psychopathology related to the age at which an individual was first abused, the number of, or the gender of the perpetrators." [Tables in the paper corroborate this claim - Ed]
  • Maker, A. H., Kemmelmeier, M., & Peterson, C. (2001). Child sexual abuse, peer sexual abuse, and sexual assault in adulthood: A multi-risk model of revictimization. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 14(2), 351–368.
    "With regard to the consequences of pre-16 years and post-16 years sexual victimization, we found that that the latter was associated with lower levels of functioning on many of the mental health and behavioral outcomes. By contrast, pre-16 years sexual trauma (CSA or PSA) was only related to some maladaptive behavioral and psychological consequences. The pattern of findings is consistent with the assumption that more recent trauma has a greater impact on psychosocial functioning than more distal child abuse. This does not mean that CSA and PSA are less detrimental, but perhaps that women have had a longer time to cope with the effects of CSA in comparison to that of ASA (cf. Rind et al., 1998)."
  • Ulibarri, M. D., Ulloa, E. C., & Salazar, M. (2015). Associations between Mental Health, Substance Use, and Sexual Abuse Experiences among Latinas. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 24(1), 35–54.
    "Whereas some research focuses primarily on childhood sexual abuse and others focus on adult sexual abuse victimization, the results of the current study suggest that both may have negative consequences for Latinas regardless of how old they were when they were first sexually abused."

Studies which use Rind-type CSA definitions

It should be noted that the above studies (which insist on self-perceived abuse and/or use of force) are fundamentally different to the Rind/Daly type studies which canvass for all legally defined "CSA" regardless of force or perception of abuse, or meta-analyze such data. With the latter type of study, it may well be the case that younger "victims" of legally-defined CSA go on to perceive these events as more negative, however, concrete psychological outcomes have not been observed to follow any significant trend. The reasons for this more negative self-perception may again be related to wider social factors such as the taboo on sex with prepubescent children, higher frequency of incest and a higher frequency of opportunistic, low-quality interactions owing to the underprivileged social position of smaller children. As a result of this, and the tendency of older minors to be more open to initiating a contact, coercive contacts are likely to be overrepresented in the younger age group.

The following study did not insist upon force or use unrepresentative sampling (hence the now familiar absence of negative psychological adjustment in the CSA group).

Excerpt Graphic Library

The EGL on Harm covers some adjacent topics, and we will produce a graphic reviewing this topic soon. Just right click/save and reproduce by uploading in short-form media to bypass character limits.