Update as of 12 Jun, 2022: Nelson Maatman (not affiliated with Newgon) has been arrested in Mexico, and is now being defamed in the media. Please see his article for material you can use to counter this defamation on social media.

MAP Movement

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The MAP Movement is a social/political movement consisting of MAPs and their allies. The common goal of this movement is destigmatization/visibility, although some parts of the MAP movement (pro-c/pro choice) are also in favor of age of consent/broader social reforms. Pro-choice MAP activists commonly use resources such as our research anthologies to argue their case. Anti-c/anti-contact MAP activists tend to associate with organizations/forums such as Virtuous Pedophiles or MSC.

The present (second-wave) MAP Movement

More information: Minor attracted community and development of MAP as a term.

Second-wave activity started with the widening availablity of the internet[1] at around the turn of the century, and developed considerably in the late 00s and 10s, as the actual term MAP came into use. The first nominally second-wave activist was probably the hugely divisive BoyChat user David Riegel, in the year 2000. Others followed, such as AP, Rookiee and Clayboy - mainly pro-c, and referring to themselves as boylovers/girllovers, or by other novel terms of identification. International Boylove Day was set up, and some real life meetings took place - with as many as 50-100 attendees. Organizations such as B4U-Act started to work more closely with the community, and sites such as Newgon sought to make the literature published by 1st-wave predecessors (i.e. Ipce) more accessible. "Minor Attracted Person" started to be used as an umbrella term, and increasingly as a term of self-identification. By around the mid-10s, as Virtuous Pedophiles and social media NOMAPs emerged from the shadows, a small but cohesive movement using MAP as a term of self identification had finally formed.

Present activity

See also Minor attracted community.

The only present (active) MAP-originated campaigning organizations are:

  • The aforementioned B4U-Act (a collaboration with Mental Health Professionals - public activity limited to publishing and social media).
  • The self-explanatory Virtuous Pedophiles.
  • Newgon/Yesmap, which tends towards a 50/50 split of MAPs and allies, and is concerned with visibility and social media.

The well established pro-c organizations Krumme-13 and NAMBLA are still active at an organizational level. Ipce continues as an archive, but not as a forum.

B4U-Act was the first organization of the second-wave, and their limited campaigning remains to this day secondary to providing services. They are also contact-agnostic, i.e. concerned with destigmatization, and do not take a position on Age of Consent or similar issues. Virtuous Pedophiles are an explicitly anti-contact/NOMAP organization, and Newgon/Yesmap (who service this website) has a moderate pro-choice position, as well as supporting destigmatization of all chronophilias. Therefore, "counterintuitively", the MAP organization with considerably more pedophile members is also the most anti-c.

Online activism is known to take place on a variety of public facing fora. Those we are fairly sure about follow:

  • Fediverse (Mastodon and Pleroma in particular) - these decentralized platforms have been used by large numbers, but are highly specialized and involve little public interface. In layman's terms, these sites are like a "privatized version of Twitter or Facebook".
  • Twitter - has had a NOMAP contingent ever since said movement was founded, and particularly after numerous NOMAPs were banned from Tumblr in 2018. However, most MAPs on Twitter are not outwardly politically active - see our article on this community. Overall MAP membership saw a boom in the time around the MAP Flag publicity of 2018 and 19. Many were then banned, and advocacy for pedophilia was defined as counter to the T+C, but small groups of determined sockpuppeteers persist, along with private accounts. Numerous MAP activists (around 50%) on Twitter are not MAPs themselves and simply enjoy researching/arguing over the topic due to its unique ability to trigger irrational responses while providing reams of little-known peer-reviewed literature to back up sealioning/trolling strategies.

Further, we have seen limited activity on:

  • Tumblr.
  • 4Chan.
  • Reddit.
  • Quora.
  • Discord.

Internal discussion, theorizing and organizing takes place within smaller, MAP-facilitated communities such as BoyChat, FreeSpeechTube and Virped.

Other sites have been suggested as present or future interfaces:

  • Twitch - the video streaming service, is a strategic frontier due to the left-wing "Breadtube" e-celebs who use it to bait the alternative right. MAPs may gain access to these leftist/SJW groups by impersonating the alternative-right and/or planting individuals within these communities. Twitch has had many controversies concerning high-profile streamers who have in some way been (usually spuriously or weakly) linked to "pedophilia". Since Breadtube Twitch streamers tend to debate on outlandish and provocative topics, Twitch has been repeatedly touted as a future breeding ground for awareness-raising.
  • YouTube - due to its size, there have been various controversies with users making statements seeming to condone minor-adult sex, and these go back into the 00s (search "dendrophilian"). These provocative videos attract a diversity of comments. Depending on Google's take on the culture-war, YouTube will be an important battleground in the decades to come.

Terminology and symbols

See also: Minor attracted neologisms.

Terminology tends towards MAP, NOMAP, AAM and old staples such as Boylove and Girllove. Others identify as Youthlovers, and many identify with differing terms depending upon the audience (fellow MAPs, vs "Normies"). The commonly accepted symbol is the MAP Flag (a version of which was seemingly conceived in 2009), initially popularized as the NOMAP Flag of 2018. Older symbols exist, such as the BLogo and GLogo. The downward-pointing pink triangle used to identify homosexual/pederast men in Nazi concentration camps has also been adapted - for example in the NewgonWiki logos past and present. The Mu (μ) symbol has been used on social media.

Criticism

Critics such as Kurt Eichenwald[2] claim that positions espoused by the movement are encouraging abuse. David Finkelhor has stated in the past that convicts sometimes use similar arguments to those of the movement. Most criticism in the early second-wave was opportunistic and sensationalistic[3], centering on easily caricatured individuals such as Jack McClellan. This has continued in the social media era, with more of a focus on the terminology used by adjacent non-MAP organizations such as Prostasia Foundation. The alternative-right and exclusionary radical feminists are particularly active in criticizing the modern movement.[4]

First-wave MAP Movement

In essence, MAPs were a subset of the radical Gay (now referred to as LGBT) movement. For this context, see historical examples of LGBT-MAP unity.

Individuals first known for their association with LGBT-aligned MAP organisations are first-wave MAP activists. MAPs have a long history of organizing, going back to former associations with the Gay Movement; debatably to its very founding. At the time (the 1970s, onwards, for explicitly identified organizations), they described themselves as Man/Boy Love, pederast or pedophile groups, as the stigma on these terms was considerably less. The LGBT alliances only broke down in the late 80s and 90s for political reasons (gay assimilationism). For the purpose of activism, those organizations still existing continue to operate as websites and close circles of long-term members only - NAMBLA being the most high-profile example.[2][5][6]

Positions espoused by this movement were similar to the present (pro-destigmatization),[7] but with more of an emphasis on the pro-c reformist aspects.[8][9] This was in part because of the general climate of sexual liberationism in the post-stonewall era - propagated by gay liberationists and youth-lib organizations.

The movement was supported by periodicals such as Paidika: The Journal of Paedophilia (1987–1995) and through a few membership organizations, which have declined significantly in membership or ceased their activities completely.[10]

Timeline

  • Late 1950s and 1960s - and Dutch Activist Frits Bernard forms the Enclave Kring (Enclave Circle) in Den Haag, which takes on a homophile direction, despite his insistence on non-discrimination. Most organization by contemporary MAPs or indeed homosexuals, is by necessity an underground movement.[11]
  • 1970s Holland - Activity picks up in the post-Stonewall era of radical gay liberationism, as a public movement becomes active in the Netherlands.[12] Indeed, most organized activity was centered in the Netherlands, and to a lesser degree in The United Kingdom, with the Paedophile Information Exchange.[13] A small number of Dutch researchers, among them Bernard, social psychologist Theo Sandfort, lawyer and politician Edward Brongersma and psychiatrist Frans Gieles, wrote papers on the topic, both from theoretical and practical standpoints. Some of the papers discussed the effects of adult-minor sexual interactions. The data for these papers came mainly from analyzing pedophiles/hebephiles, but also from adults and young people who, as children or adolescents, had been involved in sexual relationships with adults. In a 1988 interview,[14] Bernard said he had, as part of his psychological work, and also as an authorized expert witness in a number of court cases, talked to and analyzed "more than a thousand pedophile adults and about three-thousand children and adolescents who had had [sexual] contacts with adults."
On June 22, 1979, a petition along with a letter with the same content was sent to the Dutch minister of justice and simultaneously was brought before the Dutch parliament, requesting that the age of consent be lowered. The petition was authored by the Dutch Society for Sexual Reform (NVSH) and others. Although it was endorsed by some mainstream Dutch social welfare and public mental health organizations, the executives of the ruling Labour Party and some minority parties, the petition failed.[15] The Netherlands Society for Psychiatry, as Jan Schuijer wrote, was "apparently alarmed by the success of the petition," and publicly opposed the demands for decriminalization claiming it would undermine parental authority![16] From 1979 through 1981, the last major success of MAP activism in The Netherlands was achieved when the Dutch Protestant Foundation for Responsible Family Development (PSVG) sold and distributed tens of thousands of copies of a booklet entitled Pedophilia (originally illustrated with photos) in and to Dutch elementary schools.[17]
  • The Anglosphere and a continued MAP/LGBT alliance in the 80s - In 1974, the Paedophile Information Exchange (PIE) was formed in Scotland, later based in London, where its first meeting was met with street riots.[16] In 1978 the North American Man/Boy Love Association (NAMBLA) was formed by Gay activists in Boston, soon becoming integrated as part of what was at the time an oddball gay liberationist movement. NAMBLA sought to emulate the Mattachine Society, a gay organization, that whilst controversial in its time, had gone on to be remembered as a forerunner.[18] The PIE capitulated to public pressure and disbanded in 1985, however NAMBLA soldiered on; A 2005 newspaper article quoted an undercover police officer who said that in 1995, NAMBLA had about 1,100 members![19]
In the 1980s, a number of pedophile and pederast advocacy groups formed including Vereniging MARTIJN (1982), situated in the Netherlands, and the Danish Pedophile Association (DPA, in 1985). This was followed in the early 1990s by the formation of Ipce, an umbrella organization for activist groups. Although MARTIJN and Ipce continued to function until the 10s, DPA disbanded in early 2004. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the movement faced headwinds in Europe and the UK due to a combination of events including the rise of the conservative political right, scare stories, moral panics and the rise of second-wave feminism. Child sexual abuse came into being as a discourse during this period, resulting in greater public vigilance and a decreased tolerance for child erotica.[20] The membership of the NVSH drastically decreased to below 10,000 (at times it had had up to 240,000 members) yielding a serious financial crisis.[17] Bernard (born in 1920) retired from his occupation as a psychologist, as an expert witness, and from all of his offices in international organizations in 1985.[14] He did, however make an appearance two years later as a guest on the Phil Donahue show, accompanied by a 23-year-old male who had been involved in a sexual relationship with an adult as a minor.[14]
  • Late 80s and early 90s - American Influence and the new, bourgeoise gays. Meanwhile, European and British law enforcement's efforts to combat child pornography and sexual contact with minors became more aggressive, and the number of convictions and incarcerated sex offenders increased.[21] In the Netherlands, emerging feminist and victim organizations as well as juvenile police units still supported decriminalization as of 1982.[16] However, Dutch police and law officials were increasingly educated by the FBI on "FBI methods of tracking down the makers and collectors of child pornography" (virtually and effectively "guidelines [that] target those who engage in sexual contacts with underage minors").[16] In 1989, Dutch minister of justice Korthals Althes publicly stated that weekly meetings on these matters with the FBI and British government were established in 1985.[17] The famously imprudent P.I.E was targeted by the Scotland Yard Paedophile Unit, and notable members, including founders of P.I.E. were consequently convicted of sex offenses, including Geoffrey Prime and David Joy. After the International Lesbian and Gay Association was granted consultative member status within the United Nations Economic and Social Council in 1994, the United States publicly threatened to cancel its annual financial contributions of US$1 Million to the UN because ILGA had four pronouncedly "pedophile" activist member groups: NAMBLA, MARTIJN, US-based Project TRUTH, and German Verein für Sexuelle Gleichberechtigung (VSG, "Association for Sexual Equality"). As a result, the UN status of ILGA was suspended and ILGA expelled all four organizations. The German Bundesverband Homosexualität (BVH, "National Homosexuality Association") called for international protests on ILGA for expelling these groups, in spite of the fact that BVH never before had been observed as sympathizing with MAPs.[22][17]

1st wave organizations (all inactive)

Of these organizations, only NAMBLA, Ipce and Krumme 13 are known to carry on some online publishing activity, although as public activist organizations, they all remain dormant to our knowledge.

International

  • Ipce (inactive, but still running a website). It was founded in the late 80s. As of 2005, it had 79 members in 20 countries.[23][24] They last met in 2010 on the Dutch coast, alongside an IBLD meeting.

Australia

  • Australasian Man/Boy Love Association (AMBLA). An associate of Ipce.[25]
  • Australian Paedophile Support Group (APSG). Founded in 1980 or 1983. Its membership was very small. It was disbanded due to police activity and succeeded by the Boy Lovers and Zucchini Eaters (BLAZE). This group was also dismantled by police.[25]

Belgium

  • Dokumentatiedienst Pedofilie.[26]
  • Centre de recherche et d'information sur l'enfance et la sexualité, Founded in 1986 by Philippe Charpentier. The group published the magazine L'Espoir.[27]
  • Fach Und Selbsthilfegruppe Paedophilie. Founded in the early 1970s.[26]
  • Stiekum.[26]
  • Studiegroep Pedofilie.[26].

Canada

  • Coalition Pédophile Québécois. Associated with Ipce.[23]
  • Fondation Nouvelle.[23]

Denmark

France

  • Groupe de Recherche pour une Enfance Différente (GRED), 1979–1987. The group published the bulletin Le Petit Gredin (The Little Rogue).[26]

Germany

  • AG-Pädo. Founded in 1991 by the association Arbeitsgruppe des Bundesverbandes Homosexualität.[29][30]
  • Aktion Freis Leben (AFL).[29]
  • Arbeitskreis Päderastie-Pädophilie (APF). Active in the early 1980s.[26]
  • Arbeitsgemeinschaft Humane Sexualität (AHS).
  • Arbeitsgemeinschaft "Schwule, Päderasten und Transsexuelle" ("Working Group 'Gays, Pederasts and Transsexuals'"). A 1980s faction of the German Green Party.[31]
  • Deutsche Studien- und Arbeitsgemeinschaft Pädophilie (DSAP). 1979–1983.[29]
  • Fach und Selbsthilfegruppe Paedophilie.[29]
  • Indianerkommune. Active from the 1970s through the mid-1980s.[26] Commune that pressured the Green Party, sometimes violently.[32]
  • Kanalratten. Offshoot of the Indianerkommune but for females.[33]
  • Krumme 13 (K13).[34][35]
  • Pädogruppe, Rat und Tat-Zentrum.[29]
  • Pädophile Selbsthilfe- und Emanzipationsgruppe München (SHG).[36] Starting in 2003, police began raiding its members, resulting in more than half a million items of child pornography seized and multiple arrests.[37]
  • Verein für sexuelle Gleichberechtigung. Founded in Munich. 1973–1988.[38]

Italy

  • Gruppo P. Founded by Francesco Vallini, who was a journalist at the gay magazine Babilonia. He and ten others associated with Gruppo P were arrested in 1993. At the time, the magazine's editorial staff defended him. The group published the bulletin Corriere del pedofili.[39]

Netherlands

While not strictly an MAP activist organization, see also PNVD.
  • Jon. Founded in 1979 by the Dutch Society for Sexual Reform.[29]
  • Vereniging MARTIJN. Founded in 1982. On 27 June 2012 a Dutch court ruled that the group was illegal and ordered it to disband immediately.[40] However this decision was overturned by a higher court in April 2013. The judge motivated their decision by stating that the association did not commit crimes and had the right of freedom of association.[41] This was itself overturned by the Dutch Supreme Court on 18 April 2014, reinstating the trial judge's order and banning the organization for trivializing and glorifying pedophilic acts.[42] The association filed an appeal at the European Court of Human Rights but it was rejected.[43] The group published OK Magazine.[44]

Norway

  • Norwegian Pedophile Group.[45]
  • Amnesty for Child Sexuality.[45]

Spain

  • Lolita Club. Bernard states: "There did evolve, remarkably enough in Spain, the Lolita Club, a small club in which a number of heterosexual paedophiles had united. The members corresponded anonymously with each other and exchanged non-pornographic photographs through the mail. This organization dissolved without a trace. Nothing more was heard about the founder, a businessman from Barcelona. What exactly happened will most likely never come to light."[11]

Switzerland

  • Schweizerische Arbeitsgemeinschaft Pädophile.[26]

United Kingdom

United States

External links

References

  1. Tremblay, Pierre. "Convergence Settings for Non-predatory 'Boy Lovers.'" Situational Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse (Crime Prevention Studies, vol. 19). Ed. by Richard Wortley and Stephen Smallbone. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press, 2006. pgs. 145-68 (pg. 145).
  2. 2.0 2.1 Eichenwald: "In this online community, pedophiles view themselves as the vanguard of a nascent movement seeking legalization of child pornography and the loosening of age-of-consent laws. They portray themselves as battling for children's rights to engage in sex with adults, a fight they liken to the civil rights movement... There are also online podcasts, recorded talk shows of 60 to 90 minutes featuring discussions among pedophiles...with topics like 'benefits of age difference in sexual relationships'; 'failure of sex offender registries"; 'children's sexual autonomy, practices and consequences' and 'the misrepresentation of pedophilia in the news media."
  3. ZDNet
  4. Press Release - Newgon
  5. Hagan, Domna C. (1988). Deviance and the family. Haworth Press. pp. p131. ISBN 0866567267. "...marginal liberation ideologies promoted by the Sexual Freedom League, Rene Guyon Society, North American Man Boy Love Association, and Pedophile advocacy groups..."
  6. Jenkins, Philip (1992). Intimate Enemies: Moral Panics in Contemporary Great Britain. Aldine Transaction. pp. p75. ISBN 0202304361. "In the 1970s, the pedophile movement was one of several fringe groups whose cause was to some extent espoused in the name of gay liberation."
  7. Dr. Frits Bernard,. "The Dutch Paedophile Emancipation Movement". Paidika: The Journal of Paedophilia. volume 1 number 2, (Autumn 1987), p. 35-4. "Heterosexuality, homosexuality, bisexuality and paedophilia should be considered equally valuable forms of human behavior."
  8. "The Case for Abolishing the Age of Consent Laws," an editorial from NAMBLA News (1980), reproduced in We Are Everywhere: A Historical Sourcebook of Gay and Lesbian Politics. Ed. by Mark Blasius and Shane Phelan. London: Routledge, 1997. pgs. 459-67.
  9. Mirkin "The Pattern of Sexual Politics: Feminism, Homosexuality and Pedophilia". J.Homosex. Vol. 37, No. 2 (1999). "When a core of deviant group members begin to identify with each other and reject the dominant culture's assessment of their worth, as some women did in the first and second waves of feminism, as blacks did in the 1950s and 1960s, and as gays and lesbians did in the late 1960s and 1970s, and as some pedophiles are doing now, the claim is made that the dominant categories are incorrect and changeable social creations. ... black theorists argue that black culture and life was largely invisible to both blacks and whites in the pre-civil rights period, feminist theorists claim that male categories marginalized and delegitimatized women, homosexuals were ridiculed and dismissed in the 1950s, and pedophiles are vilified today. ... Though pedophile organizations were originally a part of the gay/lesbian coalition, gay organizations distance themselves from pedophile organizations in the same way as feminist leaders sought to separate themselves from lesbians."
  10. Benoit Denizet-Lewis (2001). "Boy Crazy," Boston Magazine.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Dr. Frits Bernard (Autumn 1987). "The Dutch Paedophile Emancipation Movement". Paidika: The Journal of Paedophilia. 1 (2): 35–45.
  12. Brongersma, Edward (1988). "Schutzalter 12 Jahre? - Sex mit Kindern in der niederländischen Gesetzgebung ("Age of Consent 12 years? Dutch legislation on sex with children")", in Leopardi, Angelo: Der pädosexuelle Komplex ("On the topic of pedosexuality") (in German). Frankfurt/Main, Germany: Foerster Verlag, 212. ISBN 3-922257-66-6.
  13. Best, Joel (2001). How Claims Spread: Cross-national Diffusion of Social Problems. Aldine Transaction. pp. p150-152, pp161-163. ISBN 0202306542.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Leopardi, Angelo (1988). Leopardi, Angelo (ed.). Der pädosexuelle Komplex ("On the topic of pedosexuality") (in German). Frankfurt/Main, Germany: Foerster Verlag. pp. 297ff. ISBN 3-922257-66-6.
  15. Brongersma, Edward (1988). "Schutzalter 12 Jahre? - Sex mit Kindern in der niederländischen Gesetzgebung ("Age of Consent 12 years? Dutch legislation on sex with children")". In Leopardi, Angelo (ed.). Der pädosexuelle Komplex ("On the topic of pedosexuality") (in German). Frankfurt/Main, Germany: Foerster Verlag. p. 214. ISBN 3-922257-66-6.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 Jan Schuijer (1990). "Tolerance at arm's length: The Dutch experience". Journal of Homosexuality. 20: 218.
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 Bernard, Frits (1997). Pädophilie ohne Grenzen ("Anti-authoritarian pedophilia") (in German). Frankfurt/Main, Germany: Foerster Verlag. p. 36. ISBN 3-922257-83-6.
  18. Jenkins, Philip. Decade of Nightmares: The End of the Sixties and the Making of Eighties America. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. pg. 124.
  19. Soto, "FBI Targets Pedophilia Advocates", San Diego Union-Tribune, Feb. 18, 2005.
  20. [Best, Joel (2001). How Claims Spread: Cross-national Diffusion of Social Problems. Aldine Transaction. pp. p150-152, pp161-163. ISBN 0202306542.]
  21. Best, Joel (2001). How Claims Spread: Cross-national Diffusion of Social Problems. Aldine Transaction. pp. p150-152, pp161-163. ISBN 0202306542.
  22. PRD: ILGA Expulsion
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.5 O'Donnell, Ian; Milner, Claire (2012). Child Pornography: Crime, Computers and Society. Routledge. pp. 11–15. ISBN 9781135846350.
  24. Whitfield, Charles L.; Silberg, Joyanna L.; Fink, Paul Jay (2001). Misinformation Concerning Child Sexual Abuse and Adult Survivors. Haworth Maltreatment & Trauma Press. p. 129. ISBN 9780789019004.
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 Organised Criminal Paedophile Activity, Parliamentary Joint Committee on the National Crime, Australian Parliament, 1995.
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.3 26.4 26.5 26.6 26.7 26.8 Pablo Santiago (2004, Chapter: Colectivos a favor de la pedofilia) in Alicia en el lado oscuro (Esp), pages 387–391, isbn=84-95882-46-9
  27. "Les réseaux pédo-criminels en Belgique avant l'affaire Dutroux" (in French), Françoise van de Moortel.
  28. Save The Children, Sex offenders without Borders
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 29.4 29.5 Fonseca, Suheyla. "Um olhar crítico sobre o ativismo pedófilo" (in Portuguese). Revista da Faculdade de Direito de Campos, number 10 (June 2007).
  30. Bundschuh, Claudia: Pädosexualität (in German). Opladen: Leske + Budrich, 2001. ISBN 3-8100-2930-0
  31. Shadows from the Past: Pedophile Links Haunt Green Party
  32. Das böse Kapitel der Grünen
  33. Sexuelle Grenzverletzungen im Lehrer-Schüler-Verhältnis an staatlichen Schulen
  34. Spiegel: Unter der Gürtellinie
  35. Pädophile wollen mit Vereinsgründung noch warten
  36. Zweieinhalb Jahre Haft für pädophilen Lehrer
  37. 500.000 Kinderpornos gespeichert
  38. Frauenbewegungen in der Welt: Westeuropa (1988, in German) isbn 978-3886191505
  39. "Il " gruppo P " reclutava i bambini" (in Italian). Corriere della Sera, 15-7-1993.
  40. Rechter verbiedt pedoclub Martijn (in Dutch). Volkskrant.nl, 2012-6-27.
  41. "Pedofielenvereniging Martijn mag blijven bestaan, hof verwerpt verbod (in Dutch). Nrc.nl, 2013-04-02.
  42. Hoge Raad: vereniging Martijn definitief verboden en ontbonden
  43. Pro-pedophile association loses EU court bid
  44. Subscription magazine for pedophiles
  45. 45.0 45.1 45.2 45.3 The Sexual Abuse of Children: Volume I: Theory and Research (pages=38–39)
  46. Tom de Castella & Tom Heyden "How did the pro-paedophile group PIE exist openly for 10 years?", BBC News Magazine, 27 February 2014
  47. CSC Journal Scans
  48. Whatever Happened to NAMBLA, America's Paedophilia Advocates?
  49. Finding Out: An Introduction to LGBT Studies (2009), ISBN 9781412938648, p 162.